1. Urinary system infection
This refers to urethral and bladder infections. The passage of urine from the bladder to the outside of the body is called the urethra. The urethra and the bladder are closely connected. Urinary tract infections often cause bladder inflammation. In general, urinary tract infections are related to poor hygiene. About half of women have at least one urinary tract infection. Some women have multiple infections. Many women suffer from 1-2 times a year, which is very common. The main pathogen of urinary tract infection is E. coli, which is widely found in the gut of humans and many animals. Some women are more susceptible to infection. There are also some female urinary tract infections that are the result of contusions in sexual intercourse; men also get the disease, but it is rare. Male urinary tract infections are usually caused by sexually transmitted diseases. Non-specific urethritis and gonorrhea are the two most common causes of urinary tract and bladder inflammation.
2. Prostate disease
Prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, and prostate cancer are common diseases in men's prostate. Prostate hyperplasia is one of the common diseases of male geriatric patients. As men age, men have more or less prostatic hyperplasia. Studies have shown that prostatic hyperplasia begins after age 40, but older people over the age of 60 are more common. The main symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia are difficulty in urination, lighter people get more urinating at night, there is urinary incomplete net or there is a small amount of urinary excretion after the phenomenon; severe urine flow becomes fine, or even the phenomenon of row; while often accompanied There are back pain, weakness, spermatorrhea and other symptoms. In the early stage of prostate hyperplasia, conservative treatment with drugs is often used. In severe cases, surgical treatment can be selected if the drug can not effectively control symptoms or have serious complications.
There are two kinds of acute and chronic prostatitis. Acute prostatitis with chills, fever, bladder irritation, dysuria, perineal and suprapubic pain as the main symptoms, but clinical rare. Chronic prostatitis is mainly characterized by abnormal micturition and pain in the vicinity of the prostate. It can cause sexual dysfunction, anxiety, depression, insomnia and memory loss for a long time. Patients with chronic prostatitis account for 30% to 50% of male outpatient clinics, and patients 20 to 40 years of age account for 50% to 80%.
The incidence of prostate cancer has obvious geographic and racial differences. The incidence of prostate cancer in Asia is far lower than in Europe and the United States, but it has shown an upward trend in recent years. Prostate cancer patients are mainly elderly men and are related to age. Genetics is currently recognized as one of the most important risk factors for prostate cancer. Early stage of prostate cancer can be without any discomfort; as the disease progresses, lower urinary tract symptoms can occur gradually, including obstruction and irritation. Urinary retention, urinary incontinence, and hematuria can occur in severe cases; bone pain and pathological changes can occur after late bone metastases occur. Fractures, anemia, spinal cord compression, etc.
3. Urinary system tumors
Occurs in any part of the urinary system. Including renal, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, urethra tumors. The renal pelvis is composed of organs with ducts. The urinary epithelium (also called the transitional epithelium) is covered in the cavity. The internal environment in contact with the urinary tract is urine. Carcinogens often cause urinary tract epithelial neoplasms through urine, so the pelvis and ureters are involved. The urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder, urinary bladder, and urinary tract have common features and may have multiple organs. Urinary bladder cancer is also the most common because of the longest residence time in the bladder.
Urinary system tumors are often issued after the age of 40, and men are about twice as likely as women. Nephroblastoma and bladder rhabdomyosarcoma are diseases of infants and young children, and there is no difference in the incidence of males and females. In the urinary system tumors, the incidence of renal pelvis cancer in China is higher than in Europe and the United States.
4. Urinary system stones
Occurs in the urinary system of stones. Also known as urolithiasis. Including kidney, ureter, bladder and urethra stones. There is a clear regional difference in the incidence of urolithiasis. There are many areas with high urinary stones in the world. The incidence rate in southern China is much higher than that in the north. Occurrence and development of urolithiasis are closely related to nutritional status. In poor and backward countries, plant proteins are the main foods, urine lacks phosphate, and bladder stones are prone to occur. It is particularly common in children, and common adult calcium-containing kidney stones occur in developed countries. There are many doctrines for the formation of urinary stones, such as nucleation theory, matrix theory, and crystal inhibition theory. There is no theory to explain the mechanism of formation of all urinary stones. Obstructions, foreign bodies, and infections in the urinary system can promote urinary stone formation. Conversely, urinary stones can cause obstruction and infection. Metabolic diseases such as hyperparathyroidism, hyperuricemia, oxalic acid, and metabolic abnormalities such as cystine can also be the cause of urinary stone formation.
5. Acute nephritic syndrome
Mostly streptococcal infections. Clinical features: Hematuria, proteinuria, edema, hypertension, azotemia.
6. Acute nephritis syndrome
Clinical features: More acute onset, hematuria, proteinuria, edema, hypertension, azotemia.
Glomerular disease refers to a group of patients with similar clinical manifestations (such as hematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, etc.), but the etiology, pathogenesis, pathological changes, duration and prognosis are not the same, and the lesions mainly involve the renal glomeruli. disease. Can be divided into primary, secondary and hereditary. The primary cause of primary glomerulopathy is unknown, secondary glomerular disease refers to glomerular damage in systemic diseases, and hereditary glomerulopathy refers to glomerulopathies caused by genetic variations.
Primary glomerulopathy is divided into five clinical types:
(1) Acute glomerulonephritis;
(2) rapid glomerulonephritis;
(3) chronic glomerulonephritis;
(4) Occult glomerulonephritis [asymptomatic hematuria or (and) proteinuria];
(5) Nephrotic syndrome.
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